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History of Natural Resource Management

In the United States, the Bureau of Land Management is the one institution that is responsible for managing all public lands in the country. The institution currently oversees about 264 million acres of land in the states, or equal to one-eighth of the total landmass in the country. The focus on sustainability of natural resources has been present for a long time in the USA and it can be traced back to early attempts at understanding the ecological nature of the rangelands in North America in the late 19th century, in addition to the movement of resource conservation emerging around the same time. By the 20th century, it was clear that conservation strategies by the preservationist were not effective in dealing with the decline of natural resources. An approach that is more integrated was then implemented to take into account the many aspects of resource management (politics, economy, culture, and social), all of which are inter-related. A new method would then evolve from the Brundtland Commission, the form of which is more holistic and applicable on both national and global levels. The government of New South Wales implemented a Standard for Quality Natural Resource Management in 2005. The Standard is expected to be able to improve the practice of natural resource management, based on an approach to adaptive management.

History of Natural Resource ManagementIn the US, wildlife management is the part of natural resource management that is the most active. It is most often associated with ecotourism and the management of rangeland. In Australia, water sharing (e.g. the Murray Darling Basin Plan) and catchment management are significant areas of the whole thing. Approaches to the management of natural resource can be categorized into several kinds based on the right of stakeholders. State property is when the state controls and owns the use of resources. Use by individuals or groups is possible but only when permitted by the state.

the Murray Darling Basin PlanPrivate property is owned by either an individual or a corporate entity. Benefit and duties to the resources are on the owner. Common property is owned privately by a group. Non-property has no definite owners. Hybrid property is owned by more than one of the owners of the aforementioned properties. Natural resource management incorporates the system of stakeholder analysis implemented in the practices of business management. In the context of natural resource management, stakeholder analysis refers to groups that are involved in the use and conservation of the natural resources.

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